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    Help BDD!! Dictionary Project 
    #1
    So to make some things easier for those new to drugs, we are starting a drug/pharmacology dictionary. Feel free to contribute words (definitions and categories preferred, though not required). Hit Ctrl + F and type your word to see if it has been listed already. Please no drug slang! Drug names are not needed unless they pertain to Harm Reduction (e.g. APAP, Naltrexone).


    Abscess- Enclosed collection of liquefied tissue, known as pus, somewhere in the body; result of the body's defensive reaction to foreign material, commonly formed due to missed shots
    Affinity- Force that impels certain atoms or molecules to bind to or unite with other atoms or molecules to form complexes or compounds; chemical attraction
    Alkaloid- Nitrogen containing drugs derived from plants (e.g. Morphine, DMT, Caffeine)
    Amphetamine- alpha-Methyl Phenethylamine, a common class of stimulant, the base for many drugs (e.g. MDMA, MDA, DOx, Methampthetamine)
    Amp(o)ule- Small glass vial sealed after filling, developed for safe storage of sterile injectable unit
    Agonist- Compound that binds to a receptor, activating it and initiating a cascade of reactions within the receptor's cell
    Anaesthesia- Complete numbness/lack of sensation
    Analgesia- Pain relief
    Antagonist- Compound that binds to a receptor, but does not activate it
    Anticholinergic- Drug that blocks Acetylcholine; works by competitive inhibition of ACh receptors in neurons
    Anxiolytic- Anti-anxiety
    APAP- Acetaminophen/Paracetamol/Tylenol, NSAID commonly found in codeine/hydrocodone/oxycodone pills

    Barbiturate- Derivative of barbituric acid (phenobarbital), act as CNS depressants, used for their tranquilizing, hypnotic, and anti-seizure effects
    Base- Having a pH lower than 7; a drug not in its salt form
    Baseline- Normal state of consciousness
    Benzo(diazepine)- Class of compounds with anxiolytic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties
    Bioassay- Determination of the potency of a drug by means of a biological indicator, frequently a human body
    Bioavailability- A measure of the amount of drug that is actually absorbed from a given dose
    Blood Brain Barrier- Naturally occurring barrier created by the modification of brain capillaries that prevents many substances from leaving the blood and crossing the capillary walls into the brain tissue
    Bruxia- Teeth clenching, grinding
    Buccal- ROA via putting a drug beside one's cheek

    Ceiling- The maximum biological effect of a given drug, regardless of how large a dose is administered
    Central Nervous System- Contains the brain and spinal cord, receives sensory impulses and transmits motor impulses to the rest of the body
    Closed Eye Visuals- Hallucinations one sees after one closes his or her eyes
    Cold Water Extraction- Removing harmful APAP from opiate/opioid pills using cold water and a filter
    Comedown- The period of time after the effects of a drug begin to wane in intensity
    Competitive Antagonist- Receptor antagonist that binds to a receptor but does not activate the receptor, will compete with available agonist for receptor binding sites on the same receptor
    Crash- The state of mind after stimulant use, marked by lethargy/irritability
    Cross-tolerance- Resistance to one or several effects of a drug as a result of tolerance developed to a pharmacologically similar compound

    Deliriant- Class of drugs that produce hallucinations via blocking Acetylcholine. Included are tropane alkaloids such as scopolamine and atropine as well as pharmaceuticals such as diphenhydramine.
    Depressant- Drug that reduces nervous or functional activity, such as a sedative or anesthetic
    Dissociative-
    Diuresis- Increased urination
    Dopamine- Intermediate in tyrosine metabolism and precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine; neurotransmitter is the peripheral and central nervous systems
    Downregulate- The process by which a cell decreases the number of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein in response to external variable
    Dysphoria- An emotional state marked by anxiety, depression, and restlessness

    Efficacy- The capacity to produce an effect
    Empathogen- Substances that create a feeling of empathy or emotional connection to others
    Enantiomer- One of a pair of molecules that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other
    Endorphins- Any of a group of the body's naturally produced opioid-receptor activators
    Entactogen- Any of a group of substances that creates feelings of empathy and social closeness; this term is interchangeable with empathogen
    Entheogen- Any substance, such as a plant or drug, taken to bring on a spiritual experience
    Enzyme- Macromolecule acting as a catalyst to induce chemical changes in other substances, while it remains unchanged by the process
    Euphoria- Feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania
    Expectorant- Drug that promotes secretion from the mucous membrane of the air passages or increases bronchial removal of mucous

    First-Pass Metabolism- Occurs after absorption of the drug from the stomach or intestine, where it flows through the hepatic portal vein to the liver to alter the drug to reveal or create a new functional group. This occurs in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the liver.
    Freebase- Unsalted form of a nitrogen (amine group) containing compound

    Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid- Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system

    Half-life- Period of time required for the amount of a drug in the body to be reduced to exactly one-half of a given concentration or amount
    Hallucinogen- Mind-altering drug most prominent pharmacologic action of which is on the central nervous system; causes depersonalization, perceptual disturbances, and disturbances of thought processes
    Hypnotic- Drug that promotes sleep
    Hypoxia- Decrease below normal levels of oxygen in arterial blood or tissue, without reaching anoxia

    Idiosyncratic Response- Abnormal or unusual response to a drug which is unique to a select few people
    In vitro- Study of substances in a test tube or laboratory
    In vivo- Study of substances in one's body
    Inhibitor- Drug that restrains or slows physiologic, chemical, or enzymatic action
    Insufflate- To administer drugs up one's nose
    Intramuscular- To inject drugs into one's muscles, slower than IV, faster than SC
    Intravenous- To inject drugs into one's vein, the fastest/most effective ROA
    Isomer- Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas

    Latency period- Period of time which must elapse between when a dose of drug is taken and the time at which it produces effects
    Ligand- Molecule that binds to a macromolecule, a ligand binding to a receptor
    Lipid- Fatty substance found in the blood

    MAOi/Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor- Class of powerful antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression
    Metabolism- Sum of chemical and physical changes in tissue, chiefly of anabolism (those reactions that convert small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well as biodegradation
    Methadone- Synthetic narcotic drug; an orally effective analgesic similar in action to morphine but with greater potency and longer duration; used as a replacement for morphine and heroin; also used during withdrawal treatment in morphine and heroin addiction
    Miosis- Pupil constriction
    MMT-
    Mu Opioid Receptor- Class of opioid receptors with high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphins but low affinity for dynorphins; responsible for reducing emotional and physical response to pain
    Mydriasis- Pupil Dilation

    Naloxone- Potent antagonist of both endorphins and narcotics; used to treat opiate overdose to reverse coma and respiratory depression
    Naltrexone- Narcotic antagonist; lacks pharmacological action when administered without narcotics
    Narcotic- Analgesic drug derived from the Opium Poppy (Pipaver Somniferum)
    Neurotoxic- Poisonous to substances in the nervous system
    Neurotransmitter- Specific chemical released by a presynaptic cell that crosses the synapse to stimulate or inhibit the postsynaptic cell; neurotransmitters released by presynaptic cells may change transmitter release from presynaptic cells
    Noncompetitive Antagonist-
    Nootropic-
    NSAID- Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug; OTC analgesics such as ibuprofen, naproxen or aspirin.
    Nystagmus- Involuntary rhythmic movement of the eyeballs, either like a pendulum or with slow and fast motions

    Opiate- Drugs contained in the Opium poppy Papaver somniferum
    Opioid- Synthetic analgesic drugs resembling opiates
    Open Eye Visual/OEV- Hallucinations one experiences with one's eyes open
    Out of Body Experience/OBE-
    OTC- Over the Counter, indicates the legality of a drug

    Parachute- To crush up a pill and place in a piece of toilet/rolling paper and swallow
    Paresthesia- Spontaneous abnormal usually nonpainful sensations; may be due to lesions of both the central and peripheral nervous systems
    Parasympathetic Nervous System-
    Partial Agonist-
    Peak- The maximum period of a drug's effects, then they diminish to a plateau, and finally a comedown
    Peptide- Compound of multiple amino acids in which a carboxyl group of one is united with an amino group of another, with the elimination of a molecule of water, thus forming a peptide bond, –CO–NH–; a substituted amide
    Peripheral Nervous System- Includes the nerves and neural tissue in the body
    Phenethylamine- Chemical compound that consists of a benzene (phenyl) ring attached to a 2-carbon (ethyl) chain with a terminal nitrogen (amine); any of a class of compounds that shares the basic phen-ethyl-amine structure, including amphetamines.
    Plateau-
    Plug- To administer drugs to one via the rectum
    Potentiate- Synergy in which the simultaneous effects of two or more drugs is greater than the sum of the independent effects of these drugs
    Prodrug- Drug having no pharmacological activity until converted into an active compound
    Pupil Constriction-
    Pupil Dilation- See Mydriasis
    Psychoactive- Substance inducing effects that alter perception or interpretation of ordinary sensory input
    Psychedelic- Mind manifesting
    Psychosis- Mental and behavioral disorder causing distortion or disorganization of a person's mental capacity, affective response, and capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others to the degree of interfering with that person's capacity to cope with the ordinary demands of everyday life

    Racemic- Mixture of an equal number of dextro- and levorotatory substances, which are separable
    Receptor- Structural protein molecule on a cell's surface or within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor, such as a drug, hormone, antigen, or neurotransmitter
    Rectal-
    Re-uptake- Re-absorption of naturally produced substances back in to the host cell
    Route of Administration/ROA- Method by which one administers drugs into one's body
    Rush-

    Second-Pass Metabolism- Occurs in the cytosol of the liver, attaches the new functional group to an endogenous water soluble substance, which will allow the drug to be excreted by the kidneys
    Sedative- Drug that quiets nervous excitement
    Serotonin- 5-Hydroxy-Tryptamine; a neurotransmitter found mostly in the cerebrum (grey matter) and gastro-intestinal (digestive) tract
    Serotonin Syndrome- Combination of symptoms resulting from elevated levels of serotonin, usually due to ingestion of two or more drugs that interfere with serotonin metabolism at different points. Symptoms occur may include agitation, confusion, diaphoresis, diarrhea, fever, shivering, tremor, myoclonus, rigidity, trismus, opisthonus, seizures, drowsiness, hallucinations, and coma. Autonomic signs include abdominal pain, diarrhea, flushing, hypertension, mydriasis, salivation, tachycardia, and tachypnea
    Set-
    Setting-
    Sinus- Tubular channel connecting one body part with another or with the outside
    Snort- See insufflate
    Solubility- Ability of a solid substance (solute) to dissolve in a liquid medium (solvent)
    SNRI- Serotonin-Norepinephrine Re-uptake inhibitor; slows re-absorption of SE (serotonin) and NE (norepinephrine)
    SSRI- Selective Serotonin Re-uptake inhibitor; slows re-absorption of SE (serotonin) at certain types of serotonin receptors
    Steep-
    Stereoisomer- Molecules that have the same molecular formula, the same sequence of bonds, but different arrangements in space
    Stimulant- Class of drug that elevates pre- and post-synaptic CNS activity
    Subcutaneous- Underneath the skin, usually refers to an injection
    Sublingual- ROA consisting of keeping drugs under one's tongue and letting the blood vessels under the tongue absorb the dose
    Sympathetic Nervous System-
    Synapse- Spaces between neurons (nerve cells) that are used to regulate nerve impulse transmission
    Synergy- Summing of the simultaneous effects of two or more drugs such that the combined effect is greater than the effect of either of the drugs when they are given alone
    Synesthesia-

    Tachycardia- rapid heartbeat (generally over 100bpm)
    Taper-
    Time Dilation- Normal sense of time is slowed down; more events seem to happen in less amount of time
    Tolerance- Body's ability to maintain balance in the presence of foreign substance, requiring more of the substance to feel effects once felt at lower doses.
    Trisma-
    Tryptamine- 3-ethylamino-indole, 'indole-ethylamine,' any of a class of chemicals that shares the basic indole-ethylamine structure

    Upregulation-

    Vasoconstriction- Blood vessel size decrease
    Vasodilation- Blood vessel size increase

    Wheal- Firm, elevated swelling of skin; can be light pink to dark red and are also called welts. When administering drugs subcutaneously, or if a vein is missed, a wheal will result.
    Withdrawal-

    Xerostomia- Dry mouth
    Last edited by Cane2theLeft; 07-06-2011 at 17:58.
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    #2
    Bumppppppppp
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    #3
    Excellent idea
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    #4
    Bluelighter ILOVETORELAX's Avatar
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    wonderful
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    #5
    Bluelighter PharmTech09's Avatar
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    Mu Opioid Receptor- a particular class of opioid receptors with high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphins but low affinity for dynorphins. When they are activated, they are responsible for reducing the emotional and physical response to pain. Common receptor agonists (activators) are morphine and codeine.

    Wheal- a firm, elevated swelling of the skin. Wheals can be light pink to dark red and are also called welts. When administering drugs subcutaneously, or if a vein is missed, a wheal will result.
    Last edited by PharmTech09; 25-05-2009 at 00:21.
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    #6
    ^Thanks

    That reminds me of a few more...
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    #7
    Bluelighter PharmTech09's Avatar
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    No prob Bob. I'll try to think of more and then I'll edit the last post.
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    #8
    bump
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    #9
    Greenlighter
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    Miosis- Constriction of the pupil, for instance "pin-pricks" while using heroin/other opiates/opioids
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    #10
    Bluelighter LabRatNW's Avatar
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    Freebase- The unsalted form of a nitrogen (amine group) containing compound.

    Re-uptake- The re-absorption of naturally produced substances back in to the host cell

    SNRI- Serotonin-Norepinephrine Re-uptake inhibitor; slows re-absorption of SE (serotonin) and NE (norepinephrine)

    SSRI- Selective Serotonin Re-uptake inhibitor; slows re-absorption of SE (serotonin) at certain types of serotonin receptors

    Serotonin- 5-Hydroxy-Tryptamine; a neurotransmitter found mostly in the cerebrum (grey matter) and gastro-intestinal (digestive) tract. {structural image here?}

    Stereoisomer- molecules that have the same molecular formula, the same sequence of bonds, but different arrangements in space.

    Stimulant- General term for Central Nervous System (CNS) stimulants, also called "uppers." Any class of drug that elevates pre- and post-synaptic CNS activity.

    Subcutaneous- Underneath the skin

    Synergy- Where two components action is greater than their individual action added together; The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

    Synapse- The spaces between neurons (nerve cells) that are used to regulate nerve impulse transmission.

    Tachycardia- Overly strong contractions of the heart.

    Time Dilation- The normal sense of time is slowed down; more events seem to happen in less amount of time.

    Tolerance- The body's ability to maintain balance in the presence of foreign substance, requiring more of the substance to feel effects once felt at lower doses.

    Tryptamine- 3-ethylamino-indole, 'indole-ethylamine,' any of a class of chemicals that shares the basic indole-ethylamine structure.
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    #11
    ^Thanks a ton
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    #12
    Bluelighter LabRatNW's Avatar
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    Psychoactive- Any substance inducing effects that alter perception or interpretation of ordinary sensory input

    Phenethylamine- A chemical compound that consists of a benzene (phenyl) ring attached to a 2-carbon (ethyl) chain with a terminal nitrogen (amine); any of a class of compounds that shares the basic phen-ethyl-amine structure, including amphetamines.

    Enactogen -> Entactogen- 'generating touch from within' - Any of a group of substances that creates feelings of empathy and social closeness, this term is interchangeable with empathogen.

    Endorphins- Any of a group of the body's naturally produced opioid-receptor activators

    Solubility- The ability of a solid substance (solute) to dissolve in a liquid medium (solvent)
    Last edited by LabRatNW; 15-06-2009 at 22:28.
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    #13
    Thank you good sir
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    #14
    I think you should add in the definition of anticholinergic that it dilates your pupils quite a bit. I've been on benztropine for a few months now and my mom thinks I'm high all the time. Only some of the time.

    My psych told me it's derived from belladonna and apparently Italian women thought large pupils were attractive a few hundred years ago.
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    #15
    Bluelighter skillz~4~thrillz's Avatar
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    WOW! Excellent thread! I cannot believe I have not stumbled upon this in my journey through Bluelight. I am a perpetual student insofar as I seek truth,knowledge,facts,ect.... not bc I have to or for school. I am a seeker. Always have been. At 34,I know that all that I know is nothing.

    Thanks for the time put into this!!! EXCELLENT!!!

    Word.

    ***edit...I have some contributions to this also. I tend to read dictionaries,medical reference book,ect. I am into etymology and words period. Give me a couple days and I will add to this awesome project.

    I LOVE IT!!!
    Last edited by skillz~4~thrillz; 18-03-2011 at 01:44.
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    #16
    Bluelight Crew NeighborhoodThreat's Avatar
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    re-bump, we should keep this going!
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    #17
    Bluelighter StaySedated's Avatar
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    Deliriant- Class of hallucinogen that induces a state of delirium that includes the plant datura and drugs such as diphenhydramine.
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    #18
    ^added but edited due to pedantry.
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    #19
    Bluelighter kokaino's Avatar
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    Dissociative: are a class of psychoactive drugs which are said to reduce or block signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. The effects of dissociative's can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.

    Synesthesia: is a neurologically-based condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.

    Miosis: is the constriction of the pupil of the eye (opposite mydriasis)

    MMT: Methadone Maintenance Therapy

    Morphine: is the first alkaloid discovered from the opium poppy in 1804. Morphine is the gold standard, or benchmark, of analgesics used to relieve severe or agonizing pain and suffering.

    Heroin: is a morphine prodrug first developed in 1874 in England by boiling anhydrous morphine alkaloid with acetic anhydride for several hours which produced a more potent, acetylated form of morphine, now called diacetylmorphine.
    Last edited by kokaino; 18-03-2011 at 23:02.
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    #20
    Bluelighter StaySedated's Avatar
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    Nootropic- drug that improves cognitive function and are refered to as "smart drugs"
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    #21
    Bluelight Crew effie's Avatar
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    Would you mind changing the tachycardia one slightly? Tachycardia is actually an abnormally fast heartbeat (over 100bpm is the usual cut-off) often perceived as a strong or pounding heartbeat.

    Sorry to be fussy but it's quite a specific medical term..

    Here's a source

    edit: also, a lot of the words are described in a very technical way (see "first pass metabolism") that possibly isn't that well suited to BDD? Could be wrong but if I was new to drugs and had to look in the BDD dictionary I think I'd be pretty baffled by some of the definitions..

    edit again: also in the NSAID definition it says APAP/paracetamol is an NSAID - this is wrong, paracetamol is not classes as an NSAID.. NSAIDs are a specific class of drugs with painkilling and anti-inflammatory properties, including aspirin, iboprofen and diclofenac. A source
    Last edited by effie; 07-06-2011 at 17:20.
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    #22
    ^ good catches.

    I edited tachycardia and NSAIDs but I'll leave the issues brought up in your first edit to the BDD staff.
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    #23
    i agree that the definition of first pass is scary.


    the point to that definition should be to communicate that the drug hits the liver before the BBB, and how that effects the drug. i know it would be a lot more useful if i typed up a suggested definition, but i cannot get started on that at this moment.

    i am just agreeing with effie that these definitions should consider the practical over the technical.

    i also think this is a good idea--the concept of a BDD dictionary.
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    #24
    Bluelighter kokaino's Avatar
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    Yes, I love the concept of a BDD dictionary. But we'd have to transfer it to another thread, close it and then sticky it. Then as time goes we add more and more words to it. Though some of the definitions need to be changed a bit. For example, tachycardia should be "abnormally high hear rate", instead of just "high heart rate".
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    #25
    just another bump as we're intending to work on updating this over the coming days and simplifying a few of the definitions to fit a little more effectively within BDD as some parts will be going over the top of some new users in particular.

    so if you've anything to add or would like to see put into it then please don't hesitate to post

    cheers guys. love,

    BDD Staff
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